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GroMoPo Metadata for de Graaf global model

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Created: Feb 06, 2023 at 7:17 p.m.
Last updated: Apr 17, 2023 at 2:46 p.m.
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Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying basic needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global-scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral flow and groundwater head dynamics, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system is needed, especially for GHMs that run at finer resolutions. In this study we present a global-scale groundwater model (run at 6 0 resolution) using MODFLOW to construct an equilibrium water table at its natural state as the result of long-term climatic forcing. The used aquifer schematization and properties are based on available global data sets of lithology and transmissivities combined with the estimated thickness of an upper, unconfined aquifer. This model is forced with outputs from the land-surface PCRaster GlobalWater Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) model, specifically net recharge and surface water levels. A sensitivity analysis, in which the model was run with various parameter settings, showed that variation in saturated conductivity has the largest impact on the groundwater levels simulated. Validation with observed groundwater heads showed that groundwater heads are reasonably well simulated for many regions of the world, especially for sediment basins (R-2 = 0.95). The simulated regional-scale groundwater patterns and flow paths demonstrate the relevance of lateral groundwater flow in GHMs. Inter-basin groundwater flows can be a significant part of a basin's water budget and help to sustain river baseflows, especially during droughts. Also, water availability of larger aquifer systems can be positively affected by additional recharge from inter-basin groundwater flows.

NOTE: Model has global extent, bounding box is positioned over the Atlantic Ocean for visibility.

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
North Latitude
East Longitude
South Latitude
West Longitude


Additional Metadata

Name Value
DOI 10.5194/hess-19-823-2015
Scale Global
Purpose groundwater resources
GroMoPo_ID 5
IsVerified True
Model Code MODFLOW
Model Link
Model Time SS
Model Year 2015
Model Authors Inge de Graaf
Model Country Global
Data Available input and output publicly available
Developer Email
Dominant Geology Model focuses on multiple geologic materials
Developer Country
Publication Title A high-resolution global-scale groundwater model
Original Developer
Additional Information model result: groundwater table depth (m below surface) at 5-arcminutes resolution
Integration or Coupling Surface water;Water use
Evaluation or Calibration static water levels
Geologic Data Availability

How to Cite

GroMoPo, I. d. Graaf (2023). GroMoPo Metadata for de Graaf global model, HydroShare,

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.


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