High‐resolution temperature sensing in the Dead Sea using fiber optics
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|Created:||Mar 31, 2018 at 11:04 p.m.|
|Last updated:|| Apr 09, 2018 at 8:17 p.m.
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The thermal stratiﬁcation of the Dead Sea was observed in high spatial and temporal resolutionby means of ﬁber-optics temperature sensing. The aim of the research was to employ the novel high-resolution proﬁler in studying the dynamics of the thermal structure of the Dead Sea and the related proc-esses including the investigation of the metalimnion ﬂuctuations. The 18 cm resolution proﬁling systemwas placed vertically through the water column supported by a buoy 450 m from shore, from 2 m above to53 m below the water surface (just above the local seaﬂoor), covering the entire seasonal upper layer (themetalimnion had an average depth of 20 m). Temperature proﬁles were recorded every 5 min. The May toJuly 2012 data set allowed quantitative investigation of the thermal morphology dynamics, including objec-tive deﬁnitions of key locations within the metalimnion based on the temperature depth proﬁle and its ﬁrstand second depth derivatives. Analysis of the ﬂuctuation of the deﬁned metalimnion locations showed strong anticorrelation to measured sea level ﬂuctuations. The slope of the sea level versus metalimniondepth was found to be related to the density ratio of the upper layer and the underlying main water body,according to the prediction of a two-layer model. The heat content of the entire water column was calcu-lated by integrating the temperature proﬁles. The vertically integrated apparent heat content was seen tovary by 50% in a few hours. These ﬂuctuations were not correlated to the atmospheric heat ﬂuxes, nor tothe momentum transfer, but were highly correlated to the metalimnion and the sea level ﬂuctuations(r 5 0.84). The instantaneous apparent heat ﬂux was 3 orders of magnitude larger than that delivered byradiation, with no direct correlation to the frequency of radiation and wind in the lake. This suggests thatthe source of the momentary heat ﬂux is lateral advection due to internal waves (with no direct relation tothe diurnal cycle). In practice, it is shown that snap-shot proﬁles of the Dead Sea as obtained with standardthermal proﬁlers will not represent the seasonal typical status in terms of heat content of the upper layer.
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