Data for Variable streamflow response to forest disturbance in the western US: A large-sample hydrology approach


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Created: Nov 05, 2021 at 6:45 p.m.
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Abstract

This resource contains the data and scripts used for:
Goeking, S. A. and D. G. Tarboton, (2021), "Variable streamflow response to forest disturbance in the western US: A large-sample hydrology approach," Submitted to Water Resources Research, Earth and Space Science Open Archive: 32, http://doi.org/10.1002/essoar.10508683.1.

Abstract from the paper:
Forest cover and streamflow are generally expected to vary inversely because reduced forest cover typically leads to less transpiration. However, recent studies in the western US have found no change or even decreased streamflow following forest disturbance due to drought and insect epidemics. We investigated evidence for cases where forest cover loss leads to decreased streamflow using hydrologic, climatic, and forest data for 159 watersheds in the western US from the CAMELS dataset. Forest change and disturbance were quantified in terms of net tree growth (total growth volume minus mortality volume) and mean annual rate of tree mortality, respectively, from the US Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis database. Annual water budget components were analyzed using multiple methods: Mann-Kendall trend analysis, time trend analysis to quantify change not attributable to precipitation and temperature, and multiple regression. Many watersheds exhibited decreased annual streamflow even as forest cover decreased. Time trend analysis identified decreased streamflow not attributable to precipitation and temperature changes in many disturbed watersheds, yet streamflow change was not consistently related to disturbance, suggesting that factors other than disturbance, precipitation, and temperature are driving streamflow changes. Finally, multiple regression analysis indicated that although change in streamflow is positively related to tree mortality, the direction of this effect is dependent upon aridity. Specifically, forest disturbances in wet, energy-limited watersheds (i.e., where potential evapotranspiration is less than precipitation) tended to increase streamflow, while post-disturbance streamflow more frequently decreased in dry water-limited watersheds (where the potential evapotranspiration to precipitation ratio exceeds 2.35).

The following scripts (R language and environment for statistical computing) produce the results, figures, and tables in this paper (in the order in which they appear in the paper; requires either running data compilation/aggregation scripts first OR using provided data files watersheds.csv and wb_filtered.csv):
1. Map_watersheds.r
2. Analysis_M-K_trend_test.r
3. analysis_M-K_quadrant_figure.r
4. analysis_timetrend_linear.r
5. analysis_regressn_w-veg.r

The following scripts (R) compile the data, aggregated from other sources prior to the analyses in the scripts listed above:
1. compilation_CAMELS.r
2. compilation_Daymet.r
3. compilation_USGS.r
4. compilation_FIA.r
5. compilation_CAMELS_Daymet_USGS.r (must run scripts #1-3 first)
6. watershed_compilation.r (must run scripts #1-5 first)

Subject Keywords

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Resource Level Coverage

Spatial

Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
Western US: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming
North Latitude
49.3989°
East Longitude
-101.4968°
South Latitude
30.9241°
West Longitude
-125.1394°

Temporal

Start Date:
End Date:

Content

README.md

List of scripts and datasets in this HydroShare resource

Datasets:

  • data_FIA.csv - Output from the online FIA EVALIDator tool, summarized in csv format
  • forest_data.csv - Output from aggregating FIA data (data_FIA.csv) with CAMELS polygons
  • watersheds.csv - The first of two main data files used for analysis; this one contains watershed characteristics compiled from CAMELS, FIA, and the extended record of Daymet + USGS gage data using the scripts in this HydroShare resource.
  • wb_filtered - The second of two main data files used for analysis; this one is a time series of water budget components and forcing data, and it has been filtered to exclude watersheds where runoff ratio > 1 in any year.
  • Scripts:

    Scripts are listed below in three sequential categories:
    1. acquisition and/or compilation of individual data sources
    2. aggregation of multiple data sources into single dataset for analysis
    3. analyses used to produce results, tables, and figures

    All scripts have a .r extension and need to be run using the R language and environment for statistical computing available from: http://r-project.org.

    Reproducibility notes:

    To reproduce only analysis of compiled datasets, run scripts only the ANALYSIS block below, which require two csv files included in this HydroShare resource (wb_filtered.csv and watersheds.csv).

    To reproduce all work, beginning with data acquisition, scripts are intended to be run in the order in which they appear in this Readme file. Some manual downloads are required (as described in each script).

    Scripts

    ACQUISITION AND/OR COMPILATION OF INDIVIDUAL DATA SOURCES

    compilation_CAMELS.r

    • inputs:

      • CAMELS watershed attributes (long-term or time invariant) from several text files included in the CAMELS data download:
        • camels_hydro.txt
        • camels_clim.txt
        • camels_geol.txt
        • camels_name.txt
        • camels_soil.txt
        • camels_vege.txt
      • CAMELS daily streamflow data, from the downloaded CAMELS dataset, in the filepath /basin_timeseries_v1p2_metForcing_obsFlow/basin_dataset_public_v1p2/usgs_streamflow/XX/*_streamflow_qc.txt, where XX=USGS region (2-digit number) and * is an 8-digit gauge ID
      • CAMELS forcing data (Daymet), from the downloaded CAMELS dataset, in the filepath basin_timeseries_v1p2_metForcing_obsFlow/basin_dataset_public_v1p2/basin_mean_forcing/daymet/XX/*_lump_cida_forcing_leap.txt, where XX=USGS region (2-digit number) and * is an 8-digit gauge ID

    • outputs:

      • camels_chars.csv - watershed attributes (long-term or time invariant) from the CAMELS dataset
      • wb_1980_2014.csv - annual and seasonal water budget components and forcing data for the CAMELS period of record (1980-2014); note that seasonal values were not analyzed for this paper

    compilation_Daymet.r

    • inputs:

      • HCDN_nhru_final_671.shp - shapefile included with CAMELS data download in the folder /basin_set_full_res
      • monthly Daymet gridded prcp, tmin, tmax, srad, swe, and dayl - respectively, precipitation, min temperature, max temperature, solar radiation, snow water equivalent (which was not used to do missing data in the CAMELS dataset), and day length (used to estimate PET); all downloaded via R package daymetr.

    • outputs:

      • camels_prcp_2014_2019.csv - precipitation for 2014-2019 from Daymet prcp
      • camels_tave_2014_2019.csv - mean temperature for 2014-2019 based on Daymet tmin and tmax
      • camels_pet_2014_2019.csv - estimated PET for 2014-2019 using the Hamon method, based on Daymet inputs

    compilation_USGS.r

    • inputs:

      • daily streamflow for each watershed's gauge, obtained and summarized using R package DataRetrieval
      • wb_1980_2014.csv - annual water budget components and forcing data for the CAMELS period of record (1980-2014); created by compilation_CAMELS.r

    • outputs:

      • flow_2015_2019.csv - annual streamflow for each watershed for 2014-2019, summarized from USGS daily data

    compilation_FIA.r

    • inputs:

      • data_FIA.csv - compiled and formatted data based on outputs of tree live volume, net growth, growth per acre, and mortality, all based on queries of the online EVALIDator tool (https://apps.fs.usda.gov/Evalidator/evalidator.jsp) from 10 April 2021

    • outputs:

      • forest_data.csv - a csv file including tree growth and mortality output from FIA's EVALIDator online tool

    COMPILATION OF MULTIPLE DATA SOURCES

    compilation_CAMELS_Daymet_USGS.r

    • inputs:

      • wb_1980_2014.csv - annual and seasonal water budget components and forcing data for the CAMELS period of record (1980-2014); note that seasonal values were not analyzed for this paper
      • camels_prcp_2014_2019.csv - precipitation for 2014-2019 from Daymet prcp
      • camels_tave_2014_2019.csv - mean temperature for 2014-2019 based on Daymet tmin and tmax
      • camels_pet_2014_2019.csv - estimated PET for 2014-2019 using the Hamon method, based on Daymet inputs
      • flow_2015_2019.csv - annual streamflow for each watershed for 2014-2019, summarized from USGS daily data

    • outputs:

      • wb_1980_2019.csv - annual water budget components (Q, P) and drivers (PET, T) for 1980-2019

    watershed_compilation.r

    • inputs:

      • wb_1980_2019.csv - annual water budget components and climatic drivers
      • camels_chars.csv - watershed attributes (long-term or time invariant) from the CAMELS dataset
      • camels_ann.csv - an intermediate dataset used to summarize long-term mean incoming solar radiation
      • forest_data.csv - a csv file including tree growth and mortality output from FIA's EVALIDator online tool

    • outputs:

      • watersheds.csv - one of two main data files used for analysis; this one contains watershed characteristics compiled from CAMELS, FIA, and the extended record of Daymet + USGS gage data
      • wb_filtered - two of two main data files used for analysis; this one is a time series of water budget components and forcing data, and it has been filtered to exclude watersheds where runoff ratio > 1 in any year.

    ANALYSIS - scripts that produce results, figures, and tables in the associated the manuscript (can be run in any order; each is independent)

    Map_watersheds.r

    • inputs:

      • wb_filtered.csv - annual water budget components and climatic drivers, filtered to exclude watersheds with runoff ratio > 1
      • watersheds.csv - compiled watershed characteristics from FIA data and CAMELS dataset + extended record
      • HCDN_nhru_final_671.shp - shapefile included with CAMELS data download in the folder /basin_set_full_res/

    • outputs:

      • FIGURE: map of CAMELS watersheds used in this study
      • TABLE: summarizing a few topographic and climatic characteristics of all watersheds

    Analysis_M-K_trend_test.r

    • inputs:

      • wb_filtered.csv - annual water budget components and climatic drivers, filtered to exclude watersheds with runoff ratio > 1
      • watersheds.csv - compiled watershed characteristics from FIA data and CAMELS dataset + extended record

    • outputs:

      • FIGURE:
        • boxplot of Kendall's tau for Q, Q/P, P, PET, and T for 2000-2019
        • maps of watersheds, symbolized as significant increasing trend, significant decreasing trend, or no significant trend

    analysis_M-K_quadrant_figure.r

    • inputs:

      • wb_filtered.csv - annual water budget components and climatic drivers, filtered to exclude watersheds with runoff ratio > 1
      • watersheds.csv - compiled watershed characteristics from FIA data and CAMELS dataset + extended record

    • outputs:

      • FIGURE:
        • scatter plot of trend in Q/P (Kendall's tau) vs. net tree growth
        • Budyko plot of evaporative index (ET/P) vs. aridity index (PET/P)
        • boxplot of aridity index (PET/P) for each quadrant of the scatter plot
        • boxplot of incoming solar radiation for each quadrant of the scatter plot
        • map showing locations of watersheds in each quadrant of the scatter plot

    analysis_timetrend_linear.r

    • inputs:

      • wb_filtered.csv - annual water budget components and climatic drivers, filtered to exclude watersheds with runoff ratio > 1
      • watersheds.csv - compiled watershed characteristics from FIA data and CAMELS dataset + extended record

    • outputs:

      • FIGURE: map showing watersheds where mean annual Q for 2010-2019 deviated significantly from mean annual Q for 2000-2010, as well as magnitude of deviation and disturbance status (disturbed vs. undisturbed)
      • TABLE: tabular summary of the number of watersheds where mean annual Q for 2010-2019 deviated from mean annual Q for 2000-2010, by disturbance status (disturbed vs. undisturbed) and signifance (yes/no)

    analysis_regressn_w-veg.r

    • inputs:

      • wb_filtered.csv - annual water budget components and climatic drivers, filtered to exclude watersheds with runoff ratio > 1
      • watersheds.csv - compiled watershed characteristics from FIA data and CAMELS dataset + extended record

    • outputs:

      • FIGURES:

        • forest plot of standardized coefficients (how many SDs the response will change per SD change in the predictor)
        • partial regression plots of the five terms in the regression model
        • boxplot of delta-Q/Q1 by aridity (PET/P) and mortality level, based on observations
        • fixed effects plot of mortality and aridity on delta-Q
      • TABLES:

        • multiple regression coefficients, statistics, and p-values
        • predicted percent change in Q due to multiple values of mortality and aridity, with and without 1 degree C of warming

    References

    Sources

    Derived From: A. Newman; K. Sampson; M. P. Clark; A. Bock; R. J. Viger; D. Blodgett, 2014. A large-sample watershed-scale hydrometeorological dataset for the contiguous USA. Boulder, CO: UCAR/NCAR. https://dx.doi.org/10.5065/D6MW2F4D
    Derived From: N. Addor, A. Newman, M. Mizukami, and M. P. Clark, 2017. Catchment attributes for large-sample studies. Boulder, CO: UCAR/NCAR. https://doi.org/10.5065/D6G73C3Q
    Derived From: USDA, 2020. Forest Service, Forest Inventory EVALIDator web-application Version 1.8.0.01, St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station.
    Derived From: Addor, N., Newman, A. J., Mizukami, N. and Clark, M. P., 2017. The CAMELS data set: catchment attributes and meteorology for large-sample studies, HESS, 21, 5293–5313, http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-5293-2017
    Derived From: Newman, A.J., et al., 2015. Development of a large-sample watershed-scale hydrometeorological dataset for the contiguous USA: dataset characteristics and assessment of regional variability in hydrologic model performance. HESS, 19, 209-223, http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-209-2015

    Related Resources

    The content of this resource serves as the data for: Goeking, S. A. and D. G. Tarboton, (2021), "Variable streamflow response to forest disturbance in the western US: A large-sample hydrology approach," Submitted to Water Resources Research, Earth and Space Science Open Archive: 32, http://doi.org/10.1002/essoar.10508683.1.

    Credits

    Funding Agencies

    This resource was created using funding from the following sources:
    Agency Name Award Title Award Number
    USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forest Inventory & Analysis Program
    Utah Water Research Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-8200

    How to Cite

    Goeking, S., D. Tarboton (2022). Data for Variable streamflow response to forest disturbance in the western US: A large-sample hydrology approach, HydroShare, http://www.hydroshare.org/resource/2a674715887a4604ad951d87bdb3c847

    This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.

     http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    CC-BY

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