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GroMoPo Metadata for Nebraska Sand Hills MODFLOW model

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Created: Feb 08, 2023 at 3:50 a.m.
Last updated: Feb 08, 2023 at 3:50 a.m.
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The Nebraska Sand Hills have a unique hydrologic system with very little runoff and thick aquifers that constantly supply water to rivers, lakes, and wetlands. A ground water flow model was developed to determine the interactions between ground water and streamflow and to simulate the changes in ground water systems by reduced precipitation. The numerical modeling method includes a water balance model for the vadose zone and MODFLOW for the saturated zone. The modeling results indicated that, between 1979 and 1990, 13 percent of the annual precipitation recharged to the aquifer and annual ground water loss by evapotranspiration (ET) was only about one-fourth of this recharge. Ground water discharge to rivers accounts for about 96 percent of the streamflow in the Dismal and Middle Loup rivers. When precipitation decreased by half the average amount of the 1979 to 1990 period, the average decline of water table over the study area was 0.89 m, and the streamflow was about 87 percent of the present rate. This decline of the water table results in significant reductions in ET directly from ground water and so a significant portion of the streamflow is maintained by capture of the salvaged ET.

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
United States
North Latitude
East Longitude
South Latitude
West Longitude


Additional Metadata

Name Value
DOI 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2004.tb01040.x
Depth 263
Scale 11 - 101 km²
Layers 2-5 layers
Purpose Climate change
GroMoPo_ID 182
IsVerified True
Model Code MODFLOW
Model Link
Model Time
Model Year 2004
Model Authors X. Chen, X. Chen
Model Country United States
Data Available Report/paper only
Developer Email
Dominant Geology Unconsolidated sediments
Developer Country USA
Publication Title Simulating the effects of reduced precipitation on ground water and streamflow in the Nebraska Sand Hills
Original Developer No
Additional Information
Integration or Coupling Surface water
Evaluation or Calibration Dynamic water levels
Geologic Data Availability

How to Cite

GroMoPo, D. Kretschmer (2023). GroMoPo Metadata for Nebraska Sand Hills MODFLOW model, HydroShare,

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.


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