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Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of soil/saprolite cores in Dead Run watershed, Baltimore County, MD USA


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Created: Jan 30, 2023 at 4:17 a.m.
Last updated: Jun 26, 2023 at 3:01 a.m.
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Abstract

Soil/saprolite cores were collected at eight hilltop locations in the headwater area of Dead Run watershed in Baltimore County, MD, and evaluated for hydraulic conductivity and total porosity. The lithology consists of Mount Washington Amphibolite (mafic rock) transitioning to the Potomac Group of the Fall Zone. Cores were collected using an AMS 10.2 cm-diameter steel auger bucket, in increments of about 15 cm, to depth of refusal. The length of the soil cores ranged from 1.4 m to 6.5 m. Each ~1200 cm3 sample was evaluated in the laboratory for hydraulic conductivity (K) using a UMBC/CUERE-designed falling-head permeameter and the Hvorslev equation. For each of 180 samples, 6 measurements were taken and corrected to a water temperature of 20˚C. Average K values ranged from 10-9 to 10-5 m/sec, with a geometric mean of 4.9x10-7 m/sec and an lnK variance of 2.7. The pattern of hydraulic conductivity varied with depth. K decreased by ~ 1-2 orders of magnitude to a depth of about 0.5 m. As the soil transitioned to saprolite, K values then increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude to depths of 2 - 2.5 m. For longer cores, a decrease in K values of 1-2 orders of magnitude was observed below 2.5 m, followed further zonal order-of-magnitude increases/decreases over 1-2 m depths. Results illustrate pronounced zonal heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity for this system. As observed at other field sites, hydraulic conductivity values were log-normally distributed. Total porosity was determined on the same samples using a Teros 12 soil moisture sensor. Four measurements were taken. Average total porosity ranged from 0.31 to 0.53, with a mean of 0.45 and variance of 0.0016. Total porosity generally decreased with depth (0.1 – 1m), followed by an increase and then leveling off to a relatively constant value with depth. The zonal heterogeneity of total porosity was most prominent from 1-2 m, as opposed to hydraulic conductivity, which exhibited zonal heterogeneity with greater depths for longer core samples.

Subject Keywords

Coverage

Spatial

Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
Woodlawn, MD
North Latitude
39.3388°
East Longitude
-76.7143°
South Latitude
39.2837°
West Longitude
-76.7675°

Temporal

Start Date:
End Date:

Content

Readme.txt

# Site Information 
# ---------------------------------- 
# SiteCode: 15Bx
# SiteName: Core 15Bx
# Latitude: 39.29590622
# Longitude: -76.74430765
# LatLonDatum: NAD83 
# Elevation_m: 127.370
# ElevationDatum: NAVD88  
# State: Maryland 
# County: Baltimore 
# Comments: Located in the headwaters of Dead Run watershed, ~5 m Upstream of USGS stream gaging station 01589312, LHS hilltop, adjacent to well TR15B. See list below for SiteCode and distance below land surface. 
# SiteType: Test hole not completed as a well
#
# SiteCode: 15Hx
# SiteName: Core 15Hx
# Latitude: 39.29573873
# Longitude: -76.74400958
# LatLonDatum: NAD83 
# Elevation_m: 127.344
# ElevationDatum: NAVD88  
# State: Maryland 
# County: Baltimore 
# Comments: Comments: Located in the headwaters of Dead Run watershed, ~5 m Upstream of USGS stream gaging station 01589312, RHS hilltop, adjacent to well TR15H. See list below for SiteCode and distance below land surface. 
# SiteType: Test hole not completed as a well
#
# SiteCode: 17Ax
# SiteName: Core 17Ax
# Latitude: 39.291876
# Longitude: -76.74594032
# LatLonDatum: NAD83 
# Elevation_m: 131.487
# ElevationDatum: NAVD88  
# State: Maryland 
# County: Baltimore 
# Comments: Located in the headwaters of Dead Run watershed, ~ 565 m upstream of USGS stream gaging station 01589312, LHS hilltop, adjacent to well TR17A. See list below for SiteCode and distance below land surface. 
# SiteType: Test hole not completed as a well
#
# SiteCode: 17Gx
# SiteName: Core 17Gx
# Latitude: 39.29173612
# Longitude: -76.74549907
# LatLonDatum: NAD83 
# Elevation_m: 131.002
# ElevationDatum: NAVD88  
# State: Maryland 
# County: Baltimore 
# Comments: Comments: Located in the headwaters of Dead Run watershed, ~ 565 m Upstream of USGS stream gaging station 01589312, RHS hilltop, adjacent to well TR17H. See list below for SiteCode and distance below land surface. 
# SiteType: Test hole not completed as a well
#
# SiteCode: 19Ax
# SiteName: Core 19Ax
# Latitude: 39.29018732
# Longitude: -76.74492543
# LatLonDatum: NAD83 
# Elevation_m: 133.368
# ElevationDatum: NAVD88  
# State: Maryland 
# County: Baltimore 
# Comments: Located in the headwaters of Dead Run watershed, ~ 810 m Upstream of USGS stream gaging station 01589312, LHS hilltop, adjacent to well TR19A,. See list below for SiteCode and distance below land surface. 
# SiteType: Test hole not completed as a well
#
# SiteCode: 19Gx
# SiteName: Core 19Gx
# Latitude: 39.29069855
# Longitude: -76.74460271
# LatLonDatum: NAD83 
# Elevation_m: 137.284
# ElevationDatum: NAVD88  
# State: Maryland 
# County: Baltimore 
# Comments: Comments: Located in the headwaters of Dead Run watershed, ~ 810 m upstream of USGS stream gaging station 01589312, RHS hilltop, adjacent to well TR19G. See list below for SiteCode and distance below land surface. 
# SiteType: Test hole not completed as a well
#
# SiteCode: 20ABx
# SiteName: Core 20ABx
# Latitude: 39.2902039
# Longitude: -76.74281987 
# LatLonDatum: NAD83 
# Elevation_m: 135.908
# ElevationDatum: NAVD88  
# State: Maryland 
# County: Baltimore 
# Comments: Located in the headwaters of Dead Run watershed, ~1 km upstream of USGS stream gaging station 01589312, LHS hilltop, between wells TR20A and TR20B. See list below for SiteCode and distance below land surface. 
# SiteType: Test hole not completed as a well
#
# SiteCode: 20Gx
# SiteName: Core 20Gx
# Latitude: 39.29058381
# Longitude: -76.74284721
# LatLonDatum: NAD83 
# Elevation_m: 137.582
# ElevationDatum: NAVD88  
# State: Maryland 
# County: Baltimore 
# Comments: Comments: Located in the headwaters of Dead Run watershed, ~ 1 km upstream of USGS stream gaging station 01589312, RHS hilltop, adjacent to well TR20G. See list below for SiteCode and distance below land surface. 
# SiteType: Test hole not completed as a well
#
# Variable and Method Information 
# ---------------------------------- 
# VariableCode: Avg_K
# VariableCode: StdDev_K
# VariableName: Hydraulic conductivity
# VariableUnitsName: meters per second
# VariableUnitsType: length per time
# VariableUnitsAbbreviation: m/s
#
# VariableCode: Avg_Porosity
# VariableCode: StdDev_Porosity
# VariableName: Total porosity
# VariableUnitsName: meters cubed per meters cubed
# VariableUnitsType: volume per volume
# VariableUnitsAbbreviation: m3/m3
#
# ValueType: Sample
# DataType: Sporadic
# DataType: Average
# DataType: StandardDeviation  
#
# GeneralCategory: Soil  
# SampleMedium: Soil
# NoDataValue: -9999  
# 
# MethodCode: Hvorslev
# MethodDescription: Cores of soil/saprolite were collected from Dead Run watershed using an AMS 10.2 cm-diameter steel auger bucket, in increments of about 15 cm, to depth of refusal. The length of the soil cores ranged from 1.4 m to 6.3 m. Each collected ~1200 cm3 sample was stored in a zip-lock bag for transport to the lab, then air-dried in a covered aluminum tray. Samples were evaluated in the lab to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity using a UMBC/CUERE-designed falling-head permeameter and Hvorslev’s equation. For each of ~180 samples, 6 measurements were taken and corrected to a water temperature of 20˚C. The falling-head permeamater design is described in the accompanying UMBC/CUERE technical report. The mean and standard deviation of the six measured values are reported for each sample. Sample depth below land surface is reported as the arithmetic mean of the top and bottom elevations of the sample increment. 
#
# MethodCode: Teros_12
# MethodDescription: Subsequent to K_Sat determination, total porosity was estimated for each sample by inserting a Meter Environment Teros 12 soil moisture sensor (https://www.metergroup.com/en/meter-environment/products/teros-12-soil-moisture-sensor) into the saturated soil/saprolite sample and recording the saturated volumetric water content (m3/m3). Four readings were taken; the resulting mean and standard deviation of the four values are reported.   
#
# Processing Level
#-----------------------------------
# QualityControlLevelCode: QC0
# QualityControlLevelDefinition: Raw data.
# QualityControlLevelExplanation: Raw data. 
#
# QualityControlLevelCode: QC1
# QualityControlLevelDefinition: Quality controlled data.
# QualityControlLevelExplanation: Data have passed quality control processing.
#
# Source Information
# ----------------------------------
# Organizations: University of Maryland, Baltimore County
# SourceCode: UMBC
# SourceDescription: Soil and saprolite cores were taken to depth of refusal by UMBC personnel in Dead Run watershed. near previously drilled well locations, in 2021-2022.
# SourceLink: Null
# ContactName: Claire Welty
# Email: weltyc@umbc.edu
# Citation: Richards, M., M. McWilliams, C. Welty (2023). Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of soil/saprolite cores in Dead Run watershed, Baltimore County, MD USA, HydroShare, http://www.hydroshare.org/resource/76eb5c3cac6d4996ba8eb620a6d7948d
#
#SiteCode Depth_BLS(m) Elevation_ALS(m)
15B1	0.084	127.286
15B2	0.229	127.141
15B3	0.343	127.027
15B4	0.457	126.913
15B5	0.602	126.768
15B6	0.732	126.638
15B7	0.846	126.524
15B8	0.983	126.387
15B9	1.120	126.250
15B10	1.288	126.082
15B11	1.455	125.915
15B12	1.615	125.755
15B13	1.798	125.572
15B14	1.996	125.374
15B15	2.233	125.137
15B16	2.423	124.947
15H1	0.076	127.268
15H2	0.206	127.138
15H3	0.297	127.047
15H4	0.389	126.955
15H5	0.507	126.837
15H6	0.652	126.692
15H7	0.777	126.567
15H8	0.866	126.478
15H9	0.978	126.366
15H10	1.119	126.225
15H11	1.288	126.056
15H12	1.471	125.873
15H13	1.623	125.721
15H14	1.745	125.599
15H15	1.798	125.546
17A1	0.107	131.380
17A2	0.274	131.213
17A3	0.404	131.083
17A4	0.541	130.946
17A5	0.686	130.801
17A6	0.831	130.656
17A7	0.975	130.512
17A8	1.135	130.352
17A9	1.303	130.184
17A10	1.463	130.024
17A11	1.615	129.872
17A12	1.760	129.727
17A13	1.905	129.582
17A14	2.057	129.430
17A15	2.210	129.277
17A16	2.294	129.193
17A17	2.362	129.125
17A18	2.469	129.018
17A19	2.637	128.850
17A20	2.842	128.645
17A21	3.048	128.439
17A22	3.216	128.271
17A23	3.399	128.088
17A24	3.589	127.898
17A25	3.772	127.715
17A26	3.967	127.520
17A27	4.174	127.313
17A28	4.375	127.112
17A29	4.638	126.849
17A30	4.892	126.595
17A31	5.108	126.379
17A32	5.381	126.106
17A33	5.707	125.780
17A34	6.155	125.332
17G1	0.107	130.895
17G2	0.274	130.728
17G3	0.404	130.598
17G4	0.556	130.446
17G5	0.709	130.293
17G6	0.805	130.197
17G7	0.861	130.141
17G8	0.953	130.050
17G9	1.059	129.943
17G10	1.166	129.836
17G11	1.280	129.722
17G12	1.349	129.653
19A1	0.122	133.246
19A2	0.335	133.033
19A3	0.480	132.888
19A4	0.610	132.758
19A5	0.770	132.598
19A6	0.930	132.438
19A7	1.074	132.294
19A8	1.242	132.126
19A9	1.410	131.958
19A10	1.577	131.791
19A11	1.753	131.615
19A12	1.852	131.516
19G1	0.099	137.185
19G2	0.251	137.033
19G3	0.358	136.926
19G4	0.450	136.834
19G5	0.564	136.720
19G6	0.693	136.591
19G7	0.815	136.469
19G8	0.937	136.347
19G9	1.059	136.225
19G10	1.189	136.095
19G11	1.318	135.966
19G12	1.463	135.821
19G13	1.615	135.669
19G14	1.760	135.524
19G15	1.890	135.394
19G16	2.035	135.249
19G17	2.187	135.097
19G18	2.332	134.952
19G19	2.484	134.800
19G20	2.621	134.663
19G21	2.766	134.518
19G22	2.934	134.350
19G23	3.094	134.190
19G24	3.261	134.023
19G25	3.429	133.855
19G26	3.597	133.687
19G27	3.764	133.520
19G28	3.932	133.352
19G29	4.100	133.184
19G30	4.267	133.017
19G31	4.435	132.849
19G32	4.595	132.689
19G33	4.740	132.544
19G34	4.884	132.400
19G35	4.961	132.323
19G36	5.083	132.201
19G37	5.204	132.080
19G38	5.342	131.942
19G39	5.517	131.767
19G40	5.723	131.561
19G41	5.906	131.379
19G42	6.058	131.226
19G43	6.195	131.089
19G44	6.309	130.975
19G45	6.454	130.830
20AB1	0.076	135.866
20AB2	0.213	135.729
20AB3	0.335	135.607
20AB4	0.450	135.492
20AB5	0.556	135.386
20AB6	0.671	135.271
20AB7	0.800	135.142
20AB8	0.930	135.012
20AB9	1.059	134.883
20AB10	1.204	134.738
20AB11	1.372	134.570
20AB12	1.547	134.395
20AB13	1.707	134.235
20AB14	1.844	134.098
20AB15	1.951	133.991
20G1	0.069	137.513
20G2	0.206	137.376
20G3	0.335	137.247
20G4	0.457	137.125
20G5	0.579	137.003
20G6	0.701	136.881
20G7	0.823	136.759
20G8	0.945	136.637
20G9	1.067	136.515
20G10	1.189	136.393
20G11	1.311	136.271
20G12	1.433	136.149
20G13	1.554	136.028
20G14	1.676	135.906
20G15	1.798	135.784
20G16	1.920	135.662
20G17	2.042	135.540
20G18	2.156	135.426
20G19	2.263	135.319
20G20	2.373	135.209
20G21	2.480	135.102
20G22	2.591	134.991
20G23	2.682	134.900
20G24	2.766	134.816
20G25	2.858	134.725
20G26	2.941	134.641
20G27	3.040	134.542
20G28	3.147	134.435
20G29	3.261	134.321
20G30	3.345	134.237
20G31	3.414	134.168
20G32	3.536	134.046


Related Resources

This resource belongs to the following collections:
Title Owners Sharing Status My Permission
Dead Run Data Collection Claire Welty · John Lagrosa IV  Discoverable &  Shareable Open Access

Credits

Funding Agencies

This resource was created using funding from the following sources:
Agency Name Award Title Award Number
National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Network Cluster: Urban Critical Zone processes along the Piedmont-Coastal Plain transition 2012340
National Science Foundation Frameworks:Collaborative Proposal: Software Infrastructure for Transformative Urban Sustainability Research 1931283

Contributors

People or Organizations that contributed technically, materially, financially, or provided general support for the creation of the resource's content but are not considered authors.

Name Organization Address Phone Author Identifiers
John J. Lagrosa IV Center for Urban Environmental Research and Education at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County Maryland, US

How to Cite

Richards, M., M. McWilliams, C. Welty (2023). Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of soil/saprolite cores in Dead Run watershed, Baltimore County, MD USA, HydroShare, http://www.hydroshare.org/resource/76eb5c3cac6d4996ba8eb620a6d7948d

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
CC-BY

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