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GroMoPo Metadata for Indus Basin model

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Created: Feb 06, 2023 at 8:30 p.m.
Last updated: Feb 06, 2023 at 8:30 p.m.
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The exponential increase in groundwater usage over the past few decades in the Punjab province in Pakistan is responsible for the significant groundwater table decline in many parts of the province, leading to an urgent need for policy measures to better manage groundwater use. A better understanding of the underground water balance is necessary for drafting informed groundwater management plans. With limited data, this study develops the first physically-based groundwater model for the entire Punjab province. Using the calibrated provincewide model, simulations are performed to evaluate groundwater dynamics in the future under different scenarios. These scenarios comprise controls on groundwater pumping, canal infrastructure improvements, and precipitation changes. The impacts of these scenarios are highlighted with the mapping of changes in water table, pumping cost, and waterlogged area. The results show that changes in both groundwater abstraction and seepage from the canal system into the aquifer significantly impact groundwater heads, whereas the effect of changing precipitation is negligible. Under status quo conditions, the average provincewide pumping cost is projected to increase by 270% in 23years. The findings emphasize the heterogeneity in groundwater conditions across Punjab and highlight the need for region-specific management of groundwater resources. (C) 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
North Latitude
East Longitude
South Latitude
West Longitude


Additional Metadata

Name Value
DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000733
Depth 300
Scale < 1 000 000 km^2
Layers 1 layer
Purpose groundwater heads
GroMoPo_ID 15
IsVerified True
Model Code MODFLOW
Model Link
Model Time calibration: 1998-2002, simulation: 2011-2032
Model Year 2016
Model Authors H. F. Khan, Y.-C. E. Yang, C. Ringler, S. Wi
Model Country Pakistan
Data Available report/paper only
Developer Email
Dominant Geology Unsure
Developer Country
Publication Title Guiding Groundwater Policy in the Indus Basin of Pakistan Using a Physically Based Groundwater Model
Original Developer No
Additional Information Location: Indus basin
Integration or Coupling Surface water;Water use
Evaluation or Calibration dynamic water levels
Geologic Data Availability

How to Cite

GroMoPo, D. Kretschmer (2023). GroMoPo Metadata for Indus Basin model, HydroShare,

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.


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