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Hyporheic exchange studies in H.J. Andrews Watersheds 01 and 03, summer 2010

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Created: Apr 15, 2020 at 7:04 p.m.
Last updated: May 28, 2020 at 7:14 p.m.
DOI: 10.4211/hs.8207c26f492e49f0be33e7a2427ccfea
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A series of hyporheic exchange studies were conducted in watersheds 01 and 03 during the summer of 2010 using saline tracers coupled with electrical resistivity to image the temporal and spatial extent of the hyporheic zone during baseflow recession. A series of four 48-hr tracer tests were conducted in each watershed on a rotational schedule with each tracer test starting approximately 2 weeks following the start of the previous test in each watershed. Each tracer injection was targeted to enrich the stream electrical conductivity by ~100 uS/cm. Electrical resistivity surveys were conducted on up to 6 transects of electrodes (12 electrodes per transect) in each watershed for each test. Resistivity surveys were collected, on a high temporal frequency ranging from continuous to every 4 hrs, for pre-injection, injection, and post-injection until conductivity measurements in the shallow groundwater well network returned to pre-injection magnitudes. During each injection conductivity magnitudes were measured in the stream and each accessible groundwater well in the watershed using a handheld conductivity meter on a frequency ranging from near continuous (~15-30 min), during tracer start-up and shutoff, to every 2-6 hrs depending on position within the tracer test. Hydraulic head data was collected approximately every 15 minutes by downwell pressure transducers from a select set of groundwater wells in each watershed for nearly the full summer 2010.

These data were published in a series of papers outlined below.

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
HJ Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon, Watershed 01 and 03


Start Date:
End Date:



This file describes the data contained within this resources from a series of tracer tests conducted in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon during the summer of 2010.  Maps showing the two different stream reaches (WS01, WS03) are contained in the main folder. In the work presented here, electrical resistivity transects were set up perpendicular to the stream flow direction and used to image the presence of an electrically conductive tracer in the subsurface, which was used as a proxy for hyporheic exchange extent.  Shallow groundwater wells surrounding the stream reach were used to monitor the hydraulic heads in the wells to establish hydraulic gradients over a range of conditions during baseflow recession. 

There are three folders inside this resource, which are described here:

1) Electrical Resistivity Data – This folder includes electrical resistivity data collected in Watersheds 01 and 03 with an IRIS Syscal Pro. Electrodes were designed and made in-house of PVC pipe and conductive foil material. 

Data are contained in separate files for each Watershed (e.g. Watershed 01) and for each tracer injection (e.g. Injection 1).  The data are not separated by transect, and each transect contains 323 measurements, where rows 1:323 = Transect 1, rows 324:646 = Transect 2, etc. For both watersheds, the first tracer injection test contained only 4 transects.  All other tracer tests contained 6 transects.  

The file ABMN.txt has 4 columns and 323 rows.  Column 1 = A, Column 2 = B, Column 3 = M, Column 4 = N and are the electrode numbers called in for the sequence of resistivity measurements.  A, B are the transmitting pair and M, N are the monitored pair.  

Electrode sites are located approximately 20cm below ground surface for all electrodes.  Exact locations of the electrodes can be found in the attached survey data and are referenced in Cartesian space along with the survey locations for the groundwater monitoring wells in each watershed.  

Each .csv file includes a data file with the following column headings:

Column 1  = 'App_Rho' = Apparent Resistivity   
Column 2 = 'Dev.' = Standard Deviation    
Column 3 = 'Vp' = Voltage at Monitored Electrodes (in mV)    
Column 4 = 'In' = Current on Injected Electrodes (in mA)  
Column 5 = 'Spa.5' = Spacing between Transects (use info from survey file for electrode positioning)  
Column 6 = 'Stack' = Number of times measurement was taken and stacked (averaged)
Column 7 = 'Rs-Check' =  Resistance check (in kOhms)
Column 8 = 'Vab' = Voltage applied to the transmitting electrodes (in V)
Column 9 = 'Tx-Bat'  = Transmission system battery power (in V)
Column 10 = 'Rx-Bat'  = Receiving system battery power (in V) 
Column 11 = 'Temp.' = Temperature inside Syscal Pro (in degrees C) 
Column 12 = 'Date' = Time and Date (MM/DD/YYYY HH:MM:SS)

2) Solute Data – This folder includes data from in-stream and groundwater measurements.  

A small purge pump was used to make conductivity measurements in wells, and were measured with a YSI handheld device (calibration verification conducted weekly). An FMI pump was used with a 42 gallon trashcan to do the controlled tracer injection; salt was general feed salt for livestock from 50lb bags. 

The in-stream conductivity Data were collected with transducers. The files are labeled "WS01_inj1_Loc1_MC.txt", where WS01 = Watershed 01, inj1 = Solute Tracer Injection 1 of 4, Loc1 = Location 1, MC = Middle Channel or DZ = Dead Zone (on edge of channel near shore).

3) Survey and Hydraulic Data – This folder includes a variety of data; see “Attribute_table_VOLTZ” for Metadata description for all data in the “Survey Data and Hydraulic Head Data” Folder. 

Locations for each groundwater observation well and for all electrodes are contained in the folder “Survey Data and Hydraulic Head Data” in filename “Land Survey Data_WS01” and “Land Survey Data_WS03”.  

Locations can be found in Survey Data file "LandSurveyData_WS01.xls" (and _WS03.xls), on the 1st tab "DataForTopo".  

Also included in this folder are hydraulic head measurements collected in an existing well network installed by Steve Wondzell et al., outfitted with Onset Computing’s HOBO water level pressure transducers (U20-001-01) in addition to a few Solinst CTD loggers.  Calibrations were confirmed with a Solinst water level tape periodically during the data collection period.

Related Resources

This resource is referenced by Ward, A.S., Fitzgerald, M., Gooseff, M.N., Voltz, T., Binley A., and Singha, K. (2012). Hydrologic and geomorphic controls on hyporheic exchange during baseflow recession in a headwater mountain stream. Water Resources Research, 48, W04513, doi:10.1029/2011WR011461, 20 p.
This resource is referenced by Voltz, T., Gooseff, M.N., Ward, A.S., Singha, K., Fitzgerald, M., and Wagener, T. (2013). Riparian hydraulic gradient and stream water exchange dynamics in steep headwater valleys. Journal of Geophysical Research – Earth Surface Processes, 118, p 1-17, doi:10.1002/jgrf.20074, 17 p.
This resource is referenced by Ward, A.S., Gooseff, M.N., Voltz, T.J., Fitzgerald, M., Singha, K., and Zarnetske, J.P. (2013). How does rapidly changing discharge during storm events affect transient storage and channel water balance in a headwater mountain stream? Water Resources Research, 49, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20434, 14 p.
This resource is referenced by Ward, A.S., Gooseff, M.N., Fitzgerald, M., Voltz, T., and Singha, K. (2014). Spatially distributed characterization of solute transport along hyporheic flow paths during baseflow recession in a headwater mountain stream. Journal of Hydrology, 517, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.05.036, p. 362-377.
This resource is referenced by Ward, A.S., Schmadel, N.M., Wondzell, S.M., Harman, C., Gooseff, M.N. and Singha, K. (2016). Hydrogeomorphic controls on hyporheic and riparian transport in two headwater mountain streams during baseflow recession. Water Resources Research, doi: 10.1002/2015WR018225, 19 p.
This resource is referenced by Ward, A.S., Schmadel, N.M., Wondzell, S.M., Gooseff, M.N. and Singha, K. (2017). Dynamic hyporheic and riparian flowpath geometry through baseflow recession in two headwater mountain stream corridors. Water Resources Research, doi: 10.1002/2016WR019875, 15 p.


Funding Agencies

This resource was created using funding from the following sources:
Agency Name Award Title Award Number
National Science Foundation What are the seasonal controls on stream-riparian groundwater exchange during baseflow recession in headwater catchments? EAR-0911435

How to Cite

Ward, A., K. Singha, M. Gooseff (2020). Hyporheic exchange studies in H.J. Andrews Watersheds 01 and 03, summer 2010, HydroShare,

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoCommercial CC BY-NC.


Kamini Singha 4 years ago

Note: we just noticed that dates/times are truncated in the ER .csv files. If you need those exact dates and times, please contact us for Matlab files that are not truncated. Our apologies!

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Kamini Singha 3 years, 9 months ago

Injection start/end times:
watershed injection_start injection_end
WS01 05-27-2010 13:00 05-29-2010 13:00
WS01 06-21-2010 13:00 06-23-2010 13:00
WS01 07-12-2010 13:00 07-14-2010 13:00
WS01 08-02-2010 13:00 08-04-2010 13:00
WS03 06-14-2010 13:40 06-16-2010 13:40
WS03 06-27-2010 13:20 06-29-2010 13:20
WS03 07-19-2010 13:00 07-21-2010 13:00
WS03 08-11-2010 13:00 08-13-2010 13:00

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