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Isotopic composition and major ion concentrations of national and international bottled waters in Costa Rica

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Created: May 21, 2021 at 4:30 p.m.
Last updated: May 21, 2021 at 4:38 p.m.
DOI: 10.4211/hs.86225d08252747d5a78477c1f74eb158
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Global bottled water consumption has largely increased (14.35 billion gallons in 2020) during the last decade since consumers are demanding healthier and safer forms of rehydration. Bottled water sources are normally labeled as mountainous and pristine mineral springs (fed by rainfall and snow/glacier melting processes), deep groundwater wells or industrial purified water. The advent of numerous international and national-based bottled water brands has simultaneously raised a worldwide awareness related to the water source and chemical content traceability. Here, we present the first database of stable isotope compositions and reported chemical concentrations from imported and national-based bottled waters in Costa Rica. In total, 45 bottled waters produced in Costa Rica and 31 imported/produced from USA, Europe, Asia and other countries of Central America were analyzed for δ18O, δ2H, and d-excess. Reported chemical compositions were obtained from available bottle labels. National-based bottle waters ranged from -2.47‰ to -10.65‰ in δ18O and from -10.4‰ to -78.0‰ in δ2H, while d-excess varied from +4.2‰ up to +17.0‰. International bottle waters ranged between -2.21‰ and -11.03‰ in δ18O and from -11.3‰ up to -76.0‰ in δ2H, while d-excess varied from +5.0‰ up to +19.1‰. In Costa Rica, only 19% of the brands reported chemical parameters such as Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+2/+3, F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4-2, CO3-2, SiO2, dry residue, and pH; whereas 27% of the international products reported similar parameters. The absence of specific geographic coordinates or water source origin limited a spatial analysis to validate bottled water isotope compositions versus available isoscapes in Costa Rica. This information highlights the potential and relevance of the use of water stable isotope compositions to improve the traceability of bottled water sources and the urgent need of more robust legislation in order to provide detailed information (i.e., water source, chemical composition, purification processes) to the final consumers.

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees


Start Date:
End Date:



Funding Agencies

This resource was created using funding from the following sources:
Agency Name Award Title Award Number
International Atomic Energy Agency Stable isotopes in precipitation and paleoclimatic archives in tropical areas to improve regional hydrological and climatic impact models CRP-19747
International Atomic Energy Agency Isotope Techniques for the Evaluation of Water Sources for Domestic Water Supply in Urban Areas CRP- F33024

How to Cite

Sánchez-Murillo, R. (2021). Isotopic composition and major ion concentrations of national and international bottled waters in Costa Rica, HydroShare,

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.


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