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GroMoPo Metadata for Central Kalahari Basin integrated hydrological model

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Created: Feb 07, 2023 at 2:50 p.m.
Last updated: Feb 07, 2023 at 2:51 p.m.
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Distributed numerical models, considered as optimal tools for groundwater resources management, have always been constrained by availability of spatio-temporal input data. This problem is particularly distinct in arid and semi-arid developing countries, characterized by large spatio-temporal variability of water fluxes but scarce ground-based monitoring networks. That problem can be mitigated by remote sensing (RS) methods, which nowadays are applicable for modelling not only surface-water but also groundwater resources, through rapidly increasing applications of integrated hydrological models (IHMs). This study shows implementation of various RS products in the IHM of the Central Kalahari Basin (similar to 200 Mm(2)) multi-layered aquifer system, characterized by semi-arid climate and thick unsaturated zone, both enhancing evapotranspiration. The MODFLOW-NWT model with UZF1 package, accounting for variably saturated flow, was set up and calibrated in transient conditions throughout 13.5 years using borehole hydraulic heads as state variables and RS-based daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration as driving forces. Other RS input data included: digital-elevation-model, land-use/land-cover and soils datasets. The model characterized spatio-temporal water flux dynamics, providing 13-year (2002-2014) daily and annual water balances, thereby evaluating groundwater-resource dynamics and replenishment. The balances showed the dominant role of evapotranspiration in restricting gross recharge to only a few mm yr(-1) and typically negative net recharge (median,-1.5 mm yr(-1)), varying from -3.6 (2013) to +3.0 (2006) mm yr(-1) (rainfall of 287 and 664 mm yr(-1) respectively) and implying systematic water-table decline. The rainfall, surface morphology, unsaturated zone thickness and vegetation type/density were primary determinants of the spatio-temporal net recharge distribution.

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
Botswana, Namibia
North Latitude
East Longitude
South Latitude
West Longitude


Additional Metadata

Name Value
DOI 10.1007/s10040-019-01954-9
Depth 100
Scale < 100 000 km²
Layers 6-10 layers
Purpose groundwater resources
GroMoPo_ID 58
IsVerified True
Model Code MODFLOW
Model Link
Model Time 2001-2014
Model Year 2019
Model Authors M. Lekula, M. W. Lubczynski
Model Country Botswana, Namibia
Data Available report/paper only
Developer Email
Dominant Geology Model focuses on multiple geologic materials
Developer Country The Netherlands
Publication Title Use of remote sensing and long-term in-situ time-series data in an integrated hydrological model of the Central Kalahari Basin, Southern Africa
Original Developer No
Additional Information
Integration or Coupling Surface water
Evaluation or Calibration static water levels;dynamic water levels
Geologic Data Availability

How to Cite

GroMoPo, A. Quichimbo (2023). GroMoPo Metadata for Central Kalahari Basin integrated hydrological model, HydroShare,

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.


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