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GroMoPo Metadata for Semarang City model

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Created: Feb 06, 2023 at 8:59 p.m.
Last updated: Feb 06, 2023 at 8:59 p.m.
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Since 1900, Semarang City has been meeting its industrial water needs by pumping groundwater through its underlying aquifers. The trend toward exploiting groundwater resources has driven the number of deep wells and their production capacity to increase, and therefore leads to the water table to drop from time to time, which has been marked as one of the primary causes of land subsidence there. The main aim of the current study was to numerically model the temporal and spatial evolution of groundwater table under excess abstraction so that a groundwater management strategy can be accordingly drawn up for ensuing the sustainability of groundwater resources in the future. A series of numerical simulations were carried out to take into account hydrogeological data, artificial and natural discharges of deep wells, and boundary effects in Semarang City. The groundwater modeling is calibrated under two flow conditions of the steady state from 1970 to 1990 and the transient state from 1990 to 2005 for six observation wells distributed in Semarang City. Four scenarios that reflect potential management strategies were developed, and then their effectiveness was systematically investigated. The results of our study indicate that the implementation of proper groundwater control management and measure is able to restore the groundwater level to rise back in Semarang City, and in turn achieve the sustainability of groundwater resources.

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
North Latitude
East Longitude
South Latitude
West Longitude


Additional Metadata

Name Value
DOI 10.3390/w13101395
Scale < 1000 km²
Layers 2-5 layers
Purpose groundwater resources;decision support
GroMoPo_ID 23
IsVerified True
Model Code MODFLOW
Model Link
Model Time calibration: 1990-2005, validation: 2005-2010, simulation: 2010-2050
Model Year 2021
Model Authors W. Lo, S. N. Purnomo, D. Sarah, S. Aghnia, P. Hardini
Model Country Indonesia
Data Available report/paper only
Developer Email
Dominant Geology Unsure
Developer Country Taiwan
Publication Title Groundwater Modelling in Urban Development to Achieve Sustainability of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Semarang City, Indonesia
Original Developer No
Additional Information location: Semarang City, Indonesia
Integration or Coupling None of the above
Evaluation or Calibration dynamic water levels
Geologic Data Availability

How to Cite

GroMoPo, D. Kretschmer (2023). GroMoPo Metadata for Semarang City model, HydroShare,

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.


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