Stable water isotope and nitrate data from stream water, well, and precipitation samples collected in a montane watershed in southwest Montana (USA) (2016 - 2018)


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Abstract

These data were collected between February 2016 and August 2018 during the investigation of seasonal hydrologic connectivity between meteoric water and stream flow generation in Hyalite Canyon, MT (USA). We interpreted seasonal, longitudinal patterns of stable water isotope composition in stream flow as a method of determining stream flow generation mechanisms throughout the year. Longitudinal analysis allowed for the use of the isotopic lapse rate with elevation to assess when in the year meteoric water was reaching the stream, and when a more well-mixed source of water (i.e. ground waters) were the primary source of stream flow generation. This resource provides supplementary data and analysis code for seasonal stable water isotope and nitrate data for water samples collected in Hyalite Canyon, as well as stable water isotope data for precipitation (rain and snow) collected in Gallatin Valley and Hyalite Canyon throughout the study period. Computations for determining a prediction interval for the LMWL using a Monte Carlo resampling method are also included, as well as source code for figures included in the manuscript.

Sampling sites represent a longitudinal transect moving downstream through Hyalite Canyon along Hyalite Creek. Sampling sites included surface waters in Hyalite Creek and five tributaries, a spring and associated spring channel in the bank of Hyalite Creek, a well and associated cistern in neighboring Hodgman Canyon, and a well in the uppermost alluvial fan formed by Hyalite Creek at the mountain front. Surface waters were sampled in February, March, May, July, and August 2016-2018. Surface water samples were collected using a peristaltic pump (Geotech™ Denver, CO, United States) with platinum-cured Silicon tubing. Wells were sampled by purging three well volumes prior to water collection, employing the same filtration and field measures used at surface water sampling sites. Samples were filtered at the time of sampling using a 0.45 µm, mid-capacity capsule filter (Geotech™ Denver, CO, United States).

Chemical and isotopic analyses were conducted at the Montana State University (MSU) Environmental Analytical Lab (EAL) in Bozeman, MT. Nitrate concentrations were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES; Perkin Elmer™ Waltham, MA, United States). 18O and D isotopic analysis were conducted using using an off-axis integrated cavity output liquid water isotope analyzer (Los Gatos Research, San Jose, CA; Baer, Paul, Gupta, & O’Keefe, 2002) operated by the MSU EAL. Ten isotope analyses were performed per sample. The first two analyses were discarded during data processing to minimize potential for residual effects from previous samples. Reported data represent an average of the remaining eight analyses. Originally, four standards were used to bracket samples (Table S1): USGS 46 and USGS 48, as well as LGR #2C and LGR #3C. Sample runs included a set of all four standards inserted at the beginning and end of the run, as well as a standard inserted after every fourth sample.

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Resource Level Coverage

Spatial

Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
Hyalite Creek Watershed
Longitude
-110.9756°
Latitude
45.4857°

Temporal

Start Date:
End Date:

Content

ReadMe.txt

Data, code and supplementary figures documenting groundwater contributions along a mountain headwater catchment (Hyalite Canyon, MT)

Citation
Leuthold, S., Ewing, S., Payn, S., Miller, F., Custer, S. (2020). Data and code documenting seasonal connectivity between meteoric water and streamflow generation along a mountain headwater catchment, HydroShare, https://doi.org/10.4211/hs.e2b4b872145c47c4965ec87853abd6e8.
	
The content of this resource serves as the data and analytical code for:
Leuthold, S., Ewing, S., Payn, S., Miller, F., Custer, S. (Accepted December 2020). Seasonal connections between meteoric water and streamflow generation along a mountain headwater stream, Hydrological Processes.


Summary
Full dataset and analysis code documenting seasonal trends in stable isotope composition among surface waters, springs, and groundwaters in 2016-2018. 

Software
Analyses were performed using R version 4.0.2, as described in Leuthold et al.

Description of Contents
The file titled GRW_NO3_Values.xlsx contains nitrate concentrations for water samples collected for this work during 2016-2018 in Hyalite Canyon, Montana. 

The file titled GRW_Precipitation_Values.xlsx contains the stable water isotope composition of all precipitation samples collected for this work in Gallatin Valley, MT and Hyalite Canyon, MT. 

The file titled GRW_Sample_Values.xlsx contains the stable water isotope composition of all samples taken along Hyalite Creek main stem and tributary sites between 2016 - 2018.

The file titled Leuthold_et_al_SupplementalMaterial.docx contains a four tables: Table 1 - Standards used for stable water isotope analysis, Table 2 - Meteoric Water Isotope Values, Table 3 - Surface Water and Groundwater Isotope Values, and Table 4 - Surface water nitrate concentrations

Licenses
The data in this resource are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY 4.0 license.See here for the full legal text: 
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode

The analytical code in this resource is licensed under the MIT license found in the License.txt file in the root directory of this resource.  


Contact
Stephanie Ewing: stephanie.ewing@montana.edu

References

Related Resources

The content of this resource serves as the data for: Leuthold, S., Ewing, S. A., Payn, R. A., Miller, F., Custer, S. (Accepted December, 2020) Seasonal connections between meteoric water and streamflow generation along a mountain headwater stream. Accepted in Hydrological Processes December 2020.

Credits

Funding Agencies

This resource was created using funding from the following sources:
Agency Name Award Title Award Number
NIWR/USGS 2016MT308G
Montana Institute on Ecosystems EPS-1101342
Montana Institute on Ecosystems OIA-1443108
Montana Agricultural Experiment Station MONB00389
Montana Agricultural Experiment Station MONB003490

How to Cite

Leuthold, S., S. Ewing, R. Payn, S. G. Custer, F. Miller (2020). Stable water isotope and nitrate data from stream water, well, and precipitation samples collected in a montane watershed in southwest Montana (USA) (2016 - 2018), HydroShare, http://www.hydroshare.org/resource/e2b4b872145c47c4965ec87853abd6e8

The data in this resource are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY 4.0 license. See here for the full legal text: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode

The analytical code in this resource is licensed under the MIT license found in the LICENSE_code.txt file in the root directory of this resource.

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