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Spatial patterns and trends in surface air temperatures and implied changes in atmospheric moisture across the Hawaiian Islands, 1905-2017


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Created: Nov 08, 2019 at 10:16 p.m.
Last updated: Nov 08, 2019 at 10:31 p.m.
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Abstract

This collection is associated with the accepted Journal of Geophysical Research- Atmospheres manuscript of the same title.

While the Hawaiian Islands are experiencing long-term warming, spatial and temporal patterns are poorly characterized. Drawing on daily temperature records from 309 stations (1905-2017), we explored relationships of surface air temperatures (Tmax, Tmin, Tavg and DTR) to atmospheric, oceanic, and land surface variables. Statistical modeling of spatial patterns (2006-2017) highlighted the strong negative influence of elevation and moisture on air temperature, and the effects of distance inland, cloud frequency, wind speed, and the local trade wind inversion on the elevation dependence of surface air temperature. We developed time series of sea level air temperature and surface lapse rate by modeling surface air temperature as a simple function of elevation and found a strong long term (1905-2017) warming trend in sea level Tmin, twice that of Tmax (+0.17 vs +0.07 °C decade-1), suggesting regional warming, possibly enhanced by urbanization and cloud cover effects. Removing this trend, sea level Tmax and Tmin tracked SST and rainfall at decadal time scales, while Tmax increased with periods of weakened trade winds. Sea level air temperatures correlated with North Pacific climate indices, reflecting the influence of regional circulation via SST, rain, clouds, and trade winds that modulate environmental warming across the Hawaiian Islands. Increasing (steeper) Tmax surface lapse rates for the 0-1600 m elevation range (into the cloud zone) over 1978-2017 coincide with observations of marine boundary layer drying and rising cloud base heights, suggesting a need to better understand elevation-dependent warming in this tropical/subtropical maritime environment and associated changes to cloud formation and persistence.

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Resource Level Coverage

Spatial

Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
Main Hawaiian Islands
North Latitude
22.6735°
East Longitude
-153.6779°
South Latitude
18.0191°
West Longitude
-161.3683°

Temporal

Start Date:
End Date:

How to Cite

Kagawa-Viviani, A. K., T. W. Giambelluca (2019). Spatial patterns and trends in surface air temperatures and implied changes in atmospheric moisture across the Hawaiian Islands, 1905-2017, HydroShare, http://www.hydroshare.org/resource/f75d69315b2440e0b848df392e390497

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.

 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
CC-BY

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