Checking for non-preferred file/folder path names (may take a long time depending on the number of files/folders) ...

Evaluation of ARM tethered-balloon system instrumentation for supercooled liquid water and distributed temperature sensing in mixed-phase Arctic clouds

Owners: This resource does not have an owner who is an active HydroShare user. Contact CUAHSI ( for information on this resource.
Type: Resource
Storage: The size of this resource is 3.1 MB
Created: Mar 16, 2020 at 11:32 p.m.
Last updated: Aug 15, 2022 at 10:29 p.m.
DOI: 10.4211/hs.f78b3ee3d7954ebeb4578874100c5272
Citation: See how to cite this resource
Sharing Status: Published
Views: 386
Downloads: 2
+1 Votes: Be the first one to 
Comments: No comments (yet)


A tethered-balloon system (TBS) has been developed and is being operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) User Facility in order to collect in situ atmospheric measurements within mixed-phase Arctic clouds. Periodic tethered-balloon flights have been conducted since 2015 within restricted airspace at ARM’s Advanced Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) in Oliktok Point, Alaska, as part of the AALCO (Aerial Assessment of Liquid in Clouds at Oliktok), ERASMUS (Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems), and POPEYE (Profiling at Oliktok Point to Enhance YOPP Experiments) field campaigns. The tethered-balloon system uses helium-filled 34 m3 helikites and 79 and 104 m3 aerostats to suspend instrumentation that is used to measure aerosol particle size distributions, temperature, horizontal wind, pressure, relative humidity, turbulence, and cloud particle properties and to calibrate ground-based remote sensing instruments. Supercooled liquid water content (SLWC) sondes using the vibrating-wire principle, developed by Anasphere Inc., were operated at Oliktok Point at multiple altitudes on the TBS within mixed-phase clouds for over 200 h. Sondecollected SLWC data were compared with liquid water content derived from a microwave radiometer, Ka-band ARM zenith radar, and ceilometer at the AMF3, as well as liquid water content derived from AMF3 radiosonde flights. The in situ data collected by the Anasphere sensors were also compared with data collected simultaneously by an alternative SLWC sensor developed at the University of Reading, UK; both vibrating-wire instruments were typically observed to shed their ice quickly upon exiting the cloud or reaching maximum ice loading. Temperature sensing measurements distributed with fiber optic tethered balloons were also compared with AMF3 radiosonde temperature measurements. Combined, the results indicate that TBSdistributed temperature sensing and supercooled liquid water measurements are in reasonably good agreement with remote sensing and radiosonde-based measurements of both properties. From these measurements and sensor evaluations, tethered-balloon flights are shown to offer an effective method of collecting data to inform and constrain numerical models, calibrate and validate remote sensing instruments, and characterize the flight environment of unmanned aircraft, circumventing the difficulties of in-cloud unmanned aircraft flights such as limited flight time and inflight icing.

Data collected with CTEMPs DTS available upon request from

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
ARM’s Advanced Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) in Oliktok Point, Alaska


Start Date:
End Date:


Basic components of study

Site: ARM’s Advanced Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) in Oliktok Point, Alaska

Relevant DTS: Sensornet Oryx

Relevant time periods: May 13-16, 2016; June 5-11, 2-16; July 24-27, 2016; August 4-9, 2017

Related Resources


Funding Agencies

This resource was created using funding from the following sources:
Agency Name Award Title Award Number
National Science Foundation 1440506


People or Organizations that contributed technically, materially, financially, or provided general support for the creation of the resource's content but are not considered authors.

Name Organization Address Phone Author Identifiers

How to Cite

Dexheimer, D., M. Airey, E. Roesler, C. Longbottom, K. Nicoll, S. Kneifel, F. Mei, R. G. Harrison, G. Marlton, P. D. Williams (2022). Evaluation of ARM tethered-balloon system instrumentation for supercooled liquid water and distributed temperature sensing in mixed-phase Arctic clouds, HydroShare,

Select a license CC-BY


There are currently no comments

New Comment