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Data and Code Release: Pervasive Changes in Stream Intermittency Across the United States (published in Environmental Research Letters)

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Created: Jul 19, 2021 at 5:08 p.m.
Last updated: Jan 14, 2022 at 3:58 p.m.
DOI: 10.4211/hs.fe9d240438914634abbfdcfa03bed863
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Sharing Status: Published
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Data and code associated with the publication "Pervasive changes in stream intermittency across the United States" by Samuel C. Zipper et al., published in Environmental Research Letters. Link to paper:

When using this dataset, please cite the published paper::
Zipper, S. C., Hammond, J. C., Shanafield, M., Zimmer, M., Datry, T., Jones, C. N., … Allen, D. C. (2021). Pervasive changes in stream intermittency across the United States. Environmental Research Letters, 16(8), 084033.

Abstract for paper:
Non-perennial streams are widespread, critical to ecosystems and society, and the subject of ongoing policy debate. Prior large-scale research on stream intermittency has been based on long-term averages, generally using annually aggregated data to characterize a highly variable process. As a result, it is not well understood if, how, or why the hydrology of non-perennial streams is changing. Here, we investigate trends and drivers of three intermittency signatures that describe the duration, timing, and dry-down period of stream intermittency across the continental United States (CONUS). Half of gages exhibited a significant trend through time in at least one of the three intermittency signatures, and changes in no-flow duration were most pervasive (41% of gages). Changes in intermittency were substantial for many streams, and 7% of gages exhibited changes in annual no-flow duration exceeding 100 days during the study period. Distinct regional patterns of change were evident, with widespread drying in southern CONUS and wetting in northern CONUS. These patterns are correlated with changes in aridity, though drivers of spatiotemporal variability were diverse across the three intermittency signatures. While the no-flow timing and duration were strongly related to climate, dry-down period was most strongly related to watershed land use and physiography. Our results indicate that non-perennial conditions are increasing in prevalence over much of CONUS and binary classifications of ‘perennial’ and ‘non-perennial’ are not an accurate reflection of this change. Water management and policy should reflect the changing nature and diverse drivers of changing intermittency both today and in the future.

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
North Latitude
East Longitude
South Latitude
West Longitude


Start Date:
End Date:



Funding Agencies

This resource was created using funding from the following sources:
Agency Name Award Title Award Number
National Science Foundation DEB-1754389

How to Cite

Zipper, S. C., J. Hammond, M. Shanafield, M. Zimmer, T. Datry, N. Jones, S. Godsey, K. Kaiser, R. M. Burrows, J. R. Blaszczak, M. H. Busch, A. N. Price, K. Boersma, A. S. Ward, K. Costigan, G. Allen, C. Krabbenhoft, W. K. Dodds, M. C. Mims, J. D. Olden, S. Kampf, A. J. Burgin, D. C. Allen (2021). Data and Code Release: Pervasive Changes in Stream Intermittency Across the United States (published in Environmental Research Letters), HydroShare,

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA.


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